DR. ROOHOLLAH MODDABER, ELLIAS AGHILI DEHNAVI, ABTIN SAFAVIPOUR, MAHSA MOHAMMADI
Perspectives Of A Resistance
Battle of Stalingrad
The effective and decisive position of the Russian Federation in the international system.
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The Russian Federation, which has expanded into North Asia and Europe, is the largest country in the world and is almost twice the size of Canada. Russia is one of the largest military powers and the largest center of basic science and education in the world.
Along with its military and space power and serious economic growth plans, Russia has a very special cultural status in the world. Its people are among the top in the per capita index of reading and interest in buying and reading books, especially fictional genre. Russian literature has worldwide reputation and has a distinctive style of writing. Among those literature masterpieces such as "War and Peace" of Leo Tolstoy; “The Dead Souls” of Nikolai Gogol; “Cherry Blossom” of Anton Chekhov; “Crime and Punishment” and “The Karamazov Brothers” of the renowned novelist Dostoevsky as well as Sergey Vladimirovich Mikhalkov, the choreographer of Soviet Union and modern Russian national anthem and author of books such as "Sensitive Mission", "Humorous Tips", "Happy Bears", "Dreams in Three Sides", "Misha Bear and Pip", "Kids You Are Free in Everything" can be numbered. It is worth noting that Russia has been at the forefront of the book printing and distribution industry for decades.
Russia is undoubtedly one of the major actors and powers in international organizations, especially the United Nations and the Security Council and is one of the growing economic powers of the world which has been on the trajectory of rapid development with a new strategy that focuses on educated the younger generation.
Since 2000 and onwards, the trend of the Russian Federation presence in international relations has changed. Russian authorities have made great effort to implement their grand strategies for a stable and effective presence in international relations.
In other words, after drafting a formulation of various special multifaceted strategic plans, encompassing "Economic, military and cultural" missions, the world eyewitnesses the Russian Federation's special role in global equations and stability as an effective broker in international relations and important decision-maker even for the structure of the international system. Although this stability and influence may not be pleasant to Americans and Europeans, it cannot be diminished.
For instance, since the first Soviet Union’s astronauts Yuri Gagarin (1961) and then Valentina Tereshkova (1963) stepped out of the atmosphere, the Russian Federation's space industry has been ranked first in the world today. Other countries, especially the United States, are still lagging behind in competition with Russia and are far behind Russia's advanced aerospace technology.
Nowadays, it is naïve approach to regard the Russia solely for the sake of having advanced military weapons, energy reserves, territories, and its specific geopolitical conditions. Russia is now highly ranked in all aspects of development, especially cultural power.
Increasing economic growth rates, expanding foreign investment, attracting academic elites, developing tourism industry and the number of foreign tourists, moving towards creating economies and productions instead of crude sales, entering the field of modern and luxury automotive industries with the potential to compete with Europe; Cultural strategic plans comply with "Russian identity in the integrated land" program; "Developing a plan for the new generation and youth diplomacy" and coherentism in accordance with a centralism approach, maximizing attraction and creating community cohesion in a country with large number of ethnicity, race diversity, and religion and use this diversity in developing cooperation, friendships and the maximum participation of young people trained in the field of macro-management of the country are notable examples.
Beyond the aforementioned examples, the presence of Russia in the two regions of Eurasia and the Atlantic with the policy of "realistic centralism with the tools of pragmatism", which is Vladimir Putin's foreign policy doctrine, has made the Russian Federation's international relations strategy a decisive one in the global strategic equations alongside the United States, and even in competition with the United States, which limits and reduces the depth of influence and unilateralism of the Americans in the international arena. This fact has led international relations experts to pursue multipolar world theory with a stronger emphasis on Russian polarity.
As noted, Russia has been effective in restriction of the US influence in the region by expanding strategic partnerships with Eurasian countries, as well as by supporting East Asian nations in upgrading their position in international equations through strengthening the Shanghai Cooperation Organization, Brix and the Eurasian Economic Union and the Caspian. It has significantly boomed economy of this region and has created a large competitive regional trade and financial market with the participation of these countries, unlike the will of the US unilateralist policies toward the East. This action has been a positive effect to undermine the illegal and monopolistic sanctions that Americans impose on independent world nations such as the Islamic Republic of Iran.
At the Far East Economic Forum in Vladivostok, Russia (September 4, 2019), Russian President Vladimir Putin officially announced Russia's plan to form a similar economic group (Group 7) with collaboration of India and China. "… I think everyone today knows that Western leadership is coming to its end.", he said. It reflects Russia's serious program in the world economy.
Russia is taking advantage of its territorial opportunity – expanding from Europe to Asia – to augment its power dramatically in Eastern Europe, while the European Union is confronting with a number of internal problems and disputes, especially unilateral British plan to withdraw from the European Union and other unresolved difficulties such as immigration crisis and economic shocks. For instance, unlike the Western propaganda, the Ukrainian people have a deep cultural and historical bond with the Russian nation, and unilateral propaganda has failed to diminish their interests with Russia, and the West has been heavily defeated in this project.
Regardless of the above issues, Russia's approach to dealing with the US in Syria over the past few years and the impossibility of the US presence in Syria without regarding the role of Russia and other regional actors in the country, it has been quite successful in prevention of terrorism and extremism expansion with leadership of ISIS in Syria with the cooperation of the Islamic Republic of Iran.
It is worth noting that the development of its strategic military productive industries and its new move to build and launch the world's largest nuclear-powered icebreaker illustrates a well-defined and strategic plan for entry into the North Sea where is of particular importance in both security and economics.
In other words, adoption of "centralist nationalism" doctrine, encompasses paying attention to realism-based nationalism to become one of the focal points of power in the future multipolar world with national interests as the main indicator of decision-making, as well as development of relations with the Slavic, Caucasian, West Asian, and Middle Eastern countries and most importantly the creation of a rational balance between the regulation of relations with the eastern and western countries, has given Russia a place in the future of the international system as an effective decision-making state.
As we know, diplomacy is actually a foreign policy doctrine within the framework of each country's foreign policy doctrine. The foreign policy doctrine of a country, usually a general statement of its foreign policy, announces by the head of state or the foreign minister. The purpose of any country's foreign policy doctrine is to provide general principles to exercise foreign policy and conducting diplomacy. These principles allow the political leadership of a country to deal appropriately with different situations and account for the behavior of the state towards other countries.
The acceptance and recognition of multiculturalism has led to view world culture with a diversity approach, not cultural assimilation. That is, every society has its own culture and must be understood according to its own standards. The role of NGOs is expanding in developed countries due utilizing the role, energy, potential, and reformist spirit of youth. These capacities have used to contribute to the public diplomacy of the countries and to spread the word of &