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Coatings Formulation

European Coatings Library

Bodo Müller Ulrich Poth

COATINGS FORMULATION

An International Textbook

3rd Revised Edition

Preface

The authors were not surprised by the success of the first and second edition, as there had been no comparable reference book on the market that provided detailed explanations of recipes and formulations. Although guide formulations abound, meaningful and informed selections accompanied by notes and evaluations are in short supply. The authors have therefore gladly taken on the task of revising and updating the second edition. To this end, they have replaced outdated guide formulations, eliminated errors and added several new figures.

Developing paint recipes or paint formulations is an important part of paint and coatings technology. Unfortunately, paint recipes are listed in very few publications because they are closely guarded secrets of the paint and coatings industry. While starting formulations are available from the manufacturers of raw materials, they cannot be used for a textbook without careful selection and revision beforehand.

This book will teach paint formulation in two steps. Each chapter will first describe the chemical composition of and, especially, the binders for the type of paint presented. This will then be followed by formulation advice and an analysis of existing recipes (e.g. starting formulations). This analysis consists in calculating the important characteristic values of coatings, such as the pigment/binder ratio, pigment volume concentration and, as necessary, the hardener addition level. Finally, examples of how to develop a real-life paint formulation are provided in the case of the most important types of coatings. All calculations based on recipes and formulations are worked through step by step and should therefore be intelligible to beginners, as well.

The skills acquired in dealing with these recipes can also be employed in other applications, such as adhesives and sealants. This book focuses on the paint formulation itself, and how to arrive at it.

Of the many various paint and coating systems available, the selection provided in this textbook features the most important types. The formulations have been developed mostly from starting formulations or patent examples and cannot be used to produce paints without further ado. Patent restrictions or registered trade marks (™ or ®) are not mentioned explicitly. Furthermore, it should be noted that product and trade names may change as a result of mergers and acquisitions. Nonetheless, most of the raw materials described herein or their equivalents should be available worldwide.

This textbook seeks to familiarize laboratory assistants, engineers and chemists with the practice of formulating paints. It presupposes a basic knowledge of chemistry, binders, pigments and additives. It will also serve as a reference work for all readers interested in paints and coatings.

Würzburg and Münster, Germany in January 2017

Bodo Müller

Ulrich Poth

bo mueller@t-online.de

ulr.poth@t-online.de

Bodo Müller, Ulrich Poth: Coatings Formulation, 3 rd Edition © Copyright 2017 by Vincentz Network, Hanover, Germany

Contents

Part I  Basics

Introduction

1.1 Preliminary remarks

1.2 Comments on environmental protection

1.3 Paints and coatings as high-tech products

1.4 Definitions

1.5 Coatings

1.5.1 Solidification of paints

1.5.2 Phase boundaries in coatings

1.6 Adhesion

1.6.1 Wetting of substrates

1.6.2 Adhesion forces and mechanisms

1.6.3 Adhesion promoters/adhesion-promoting layers

1.6.4 Corrosion inhibitors, anticorrosive pigments, corrosion protection additives

1.7 Systematic classification

1.8 References

Pigment dispersions

2.1 Fundamentals of disperse systems

2.2 Stabilization of dispersions

2.2.1 Electrostatic stabilization

2.2.2 Steric stabilization

2.3 Wetting and dispersing agents

2.3.1 Dispersing agents

2.3.2 Wetting agents (surfactants)

2.4 Wetting of pigments

2.5 References

Paint formulation

3.1 Ratio of binder to solid particles

3.1.1 Pigment/binder ratio and pigment volume concentration

3.1.2 Oil adsorption value

3.2 Influence of pigments on the properties of coatings

3.3 Development of paint formulations

3.4 Multi-coat systems

3.5 References

Part II  Solvent-borne paints

Paints that form films at ambient temperatures

1.1 Physically drying paints

1.1.1 Paints based on cellulose nitrate

1.1.2 Physically drying paints based on acrylic resins

1.1.3 Paints based on rubber modifications

1.2 Oxidatively curing paints

1.2.1 Oxidative-curing reactions

1.2.2 Binders for oxidative curing

1.2.3 Siccatives and anti-skinning additives

1.2.4 Oil varnishes

1.2.5 Alkyd resin paints

1.2.6 Paints based on epoxy esters

1.3 Two-component systems

1.3.1 Two-component polyurethane paints

1.3.2 Two-component epoxy systems